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Tatabahasa Bahasa Inggeris (grammar)

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Assalamualaikum. Tujuaan utama topik ini dibuka adalah untuk membantu, memperkembangkan serta mengukuhkan kembali ilmu "Tatabahasa Bahasa Inggeris" (grammar) dikalangan warga PDC khususnya. Secara keseluruhannya topik ini akan dibincangkan dalam Bahasa Melayu bagi memudahkan kefahaman dapat dicapai dalam masa yang singkat. Hal ini demikian kerana topik ini hanya akan membincangkan tatabahasa yang paling asas sehingga tahap sederhana. Disebabkan itu, warga PDC dalam lingkungan expert diminta sama² membantu dalam membangunkan usaha yang tidak seberapa ini. Sebarang activiti mengondem, memperli, membuat kacau & lain² unsur nagative amatlah ditegah sama sekali kerana ini akan membantutkan minat untuk belajar dikalangan warga PDC yang betul² ingin mengambil peluang untuk belajar melalui topik ini. Tetapi sebarang teguran membina untuk membuatkan topik ini menjadi lebih effective & productive amatlah dialu²kan sebab ku bukanya pandai sangat. Sekian, terima kasih.
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[b][Chapter 1: Nouns][/b]

[b]1.1 Kinds Of Nouns[/b]

Perkataan -perkataan yang dibawah ini adalah nama yang diberikan untuk menyebut orang, binatang, benda & tempat.

Names Of Person - Orang

father - ayah / sister - adik perempuan
brother - adik lelaki / nurse - jururawat
mother - emak / doctor - doktor
teacher - guru / aunt - emak saudara

Names Of Animals - Binatang

tiger - harimau / horse - kuda
lion - singa / pig - babi
cat - kucing / bird - burung
dog -anjing / lizard - cicak

Names Of Thing - Benda

chair - kerusi / water - air
table - meja / gold - emas
tree - pokok / air - udara
book - buku / food - makanan

Names Of Places - Tempat

school - sekolah / town - bandar
kitchen - dapur / market - pasar
village - kampung / cinema - pawagam
house - rumah / factory - kilang
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[b]1.2 Proper Nouns - Katanama Khas[/b]

Perkataan-perkataan yang di bawah ini adalah nama khas yang diberikan kepada tempat, orang, binantang & lain².

Kuala Lumpur - Nama khas yang diberikan kepada bandar.
Malaysia - Nama khas yang diberikan kepada negara.
Tun Abdul Razak - Nama Khas yang diberikan kepada orang.
Mickey Mouse - Nama khas yang diberikan kepada binatang
Lee Building - Nama khas yang diberikan kepada bangunan.

Nama khas seperti di atas itu hendaklah bermula dengan huruf besar.
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Posted · Report post

Bagus sangat2 la usaha macam nie. teruskan berbincang dan berkongsi ilmu BI. Pakcik pun bukan pandai pun.

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Ku harapkan dengan usaha yang tak seberapa ni dapat kita sama² belajar & mengukuhkan ilmu yang sedia ada. Sebab ku sendiri pun tak berapa pandai. ^_^

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[b]1.3 Countable Nouns[/b]

Perkataan-perkataan menyebut benda, orang, binatang seperti dibawah ini boleh dikira satu demi satu.

chair - kerusi / tiger - harimau
table - meja / house - rumah
father - bapa / bird - burung
mother - emak / school - sekolah

Semua perkataan jenis perkataan-perkataan tersebut di atas boleh diletakkan a atau an didepanya untuk menunjukkan 'satu', 'sesuatu' atau 'se'.

a chair - sebuah kerusi / two chairs - dua buah kerusi
one house - sebuah rumah / many houses - banyak rumah
a hourse - seekor kuda three / horses - tiga ekor kuda
a tiger - seekor harimau many / tigers - banyak harimau
one bird - seekor burung / ten birds - sepuluh ekor burung Edited by M3ntary

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Berdasarkan ayat:

[quote]Disebabkan itu, warga PDC dalam lingkungan expert [color=#ff0000]diminta sama² membantu[/color] dalam membangunkan usaha yang tidak seberapa ini.[/quote]

[size=5][color=#0000ff][b]1.A PARTS OF SPEECH[/b][/color][/size]
Teringat masa sekolah dulu (Form 5) cikgu bi ajar [color=#ff0000]Parts of Speech[/color] iaitu semua perkataan bi yang banyak tu terhimpun dalam 8 kategori. (ada yang kata 9). Kita perlu sangat tahu bahagian2 ini untuk membina ayat-ayat bi dengan betul.
1. Noun
2. Verb
3. Adjective
4. Adverb
5. Preposition
6. Conjunction
7. Pronoun
8. Interjection
9. Article

Yang paling penting ialah [color=#ff0000]Noun & Verb[/color]
Untuk membina ayat mudah yang sempurna perlu ada Noun/Pronoun + Verb

Contoh ayat yang paling simple:
1. We sleep
2. They swim
3. She runs

3 ayat di atas tersusun atas struktur Subject + Verb dimana subjectnya ialah pronoun we, they & she

Contoh kedua memerlukan Object:
1. I play footbal
2. Ahmad eats sambal belacan

Subject + Verb + Object

Struktur asas ayat BI:
1. SUBJECT + [color=#ff0000][b]VERB[/b][/color]
2. SUBJECT + [color=#ff0000][b]VERB[/b][/color] + OBJECT
3. SUBJECT + [color=#ff0000][b]VERB[/b][/color] + COMPLEMENT (akan dibincang akan datang)

Thank you. Edited by PowerRootTongkatAli2011
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Posted (edited) · Report post

hmmmm... tak ramai yang respon. mungkin ramai yang dah expert BI.
tapi tak per, topik nie sesuai untuk newbie yang nak faham sedikit sebanyak BI.

Perbincangan seterusnya ialah mengenai;
3. SUBJECT + [color=#FF0000][font=helvetica, arial, sans-serif][size=3][b]VERB[/b][/size][/font][/color] + COMPLEMENT

Contoh ayat yang mudah:

1. He [b]is [/b]a [color=#ff0000][b]teacher[/b][/color].
He adalah subject, is adalah verb dan teacher adalah complement

2. I [b]am [/b][color=#ff0000][b]thirsty[/b][/color]
3. She [b]is [color=#ff0000]my mother[/color][/b]
4. They [b]are [color=#ff0000]our students[/color][/b]

Jika kita faham ketiga2 struktur asas di atas, kita dengan mudah boleh membina ayat yang ringkas dengan betul. Edited by PowerRootTongkatAli2011
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Posted · Report post

Maybe got many silent readers here...

please continue your effort...

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[b]1.4 Uncountable Nouns[/b]

Perkataan-perkataan menyebut benda seperti di bawah ini tidak dapat dikira satu demi satu.

water - air / rice - beras
air - angin / tea - teh
food - makanan / milk - susu
gold - emas / ice - air batu
sugar - gula / sand - pasir
iron - besi /soap - sabun

Perkataan sejenis ini tidak boleh dibubuh [i]a[/i] atau [i]an[/i] di depannya untuk menunjukkan 'satu', 'sesuatu', atau 'se'.

Seperti:

[i]a[/i] tea (x) /[i] two[/i] milk (x)
[i]a[/i] sugar (x) / [i]three[/i] rice (x)
[i]a[/i] soap (x) /[i] five[/i] gold (x)
[i]an[/i] iron (x) / [i]four[/i] water (x)

Tetapi kita berkata:

[i]a cup of[/i] tea,[i] two cups of[/i] tea, [i]a glass of[/i] tea.
[i]a kilo of[/i] sugar, [i]a bag of[/i] sugar.
[i]a piece of[/i] soap. [i]many piece of[/i] soap.
[i]a piece of[/i] iron,[i] three piece of[/i] iron.
[i]a cups of[/i] milk,[i] two glasses of[/i] milk.
[i]a bowl of[/i] rice, [i]a plate of [/i]rice.
[i]a gram of[/i] gold, [i]many grams of[/i] gold.
[i]a glass of water[/i], [i]a bucket of[/i] water, [i]cup of[/i] water.

Semua perkataan jenis ini pun tidak boleh menambahkan s kepadanya untuk menjadikan plural number atau bilangan banyak.

Contohnya:

a lot of tea (/) / a lot of tea[i]s[/i] (x)
a piece of soap (/) / many soap[i]s[/i] (x)
plenty of sugar (/) / plenty of sugar[i]s[/i] (x)
plenty of water (/) / plenty of water[i]s[/i] (x)
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[b]Uncountable nouns juga boleh digunakan dengan ekspresi kuantiti tertentu seperti dibawah.[/b]


Berikut adalah bekas-bekas / ekspresi kuantiti yang biasanya digunakan dengan uncountable nouns :
1. advice a piece of advice
2. baggage a piece of baggage
3. bread a slice of bread, a loaf of bread
4. equipment a piece of equipment
5. furniture a piece of furniture
6. garbage a piece of garbage
7. information a piece of information
8. knowledge a fact
9. luggage a piece of luggage, a bag, a suitcase
10. money a note, a coin

Berikut adalah bekas-bekas / ekspresi kuantiti yang biasanya digunakan dengan uncountable nouns untuk makanan dan minuman :
1. liquids (water, beer, wine, etc.) a glass, a bottle, a jug of water, etc.
2. cheese a slice, a chunk, a piece of cheese
3. meat a piece, a slice, a pound of meat
4. soup a tin of soup, a bowl of soup
7. water /juice / coffee/ tea a cup, a bottle, a jug, a pot, a glass
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elok juga kalau ada soalan2 untuk ahli forum jawab atau ulangkaji.

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[b]1.5 Collective Nouns[/b]

Perhatikan perkatan² yang condong dalam ayat² di bawah ini. Perkataan² sejenis ini membawa maksud 'sekumpulan' orang, binatang, kapal.

1. There is always a [i]crowd[/i] at the market in the morning.
[i]crowd[/i] - kumpulan banyak orang

2. We had an [i]assembly[/i] in our school yesterday.
[i]assembly[/i] - perhimpunan

3. The Malaysian[i] army[/i] is strong.
[i]army[/i] - tentera

4. Cik Sadiah does not like our [i]class[/i], because we are lazy.
[i]class[/i] - kelas

5.Lib Teen love her [i]family[/i].
[i]family[/i] - keluarga

6.Which [i]school[/i] do you go to?
[i]school[/i] - sekolah

7. Our [i]team[/i] won the basketball match yesterday.
[i]team[/i] - pasukan

8. The angry [i]mob[/i] burnt all the cars along the street.
[i]mob[/i] - kumpulan orang yang hingar-bingar

9. Admiral Cheng Hoe led his[i] fleet[/i] to Melaka many times in fifteenth century.
[i]fleet[/i] - angkatan laut

10. Ranjit Singh sold a [i]herd[/i] of buffaloes last week.
[i]herd[/i] - sekumpulan kerbau, biri²

Perkataan [i]crowd[/i] atau [i]assembly[/i] dalam contoh ayat di atas, adalah perkataan yang membawa maksud sekumpulan banyak orang.

[i]Crowd[/i] - Sekumpulan banyak orang yang tidak beratur, seperti di pasar , di pawagam, di perhentian bas & lain² tempat.
[i]Mob[/i] - Sekumpulan banyak orang yang tidak teratur dalam keadaan menunjuk perasaan.
[i]Assembly[/i] - Sekumpulan banyak orang yang teratur, seperti di perhimpunan mingguan sekolah, di padang, di gereja, di masjid.
[i]Army[/i] - Tentera yang mengandungi askar yang ramai.

Istilah² yang diberikan dibawah ini sangat berguna & dinasihatkan supaya menghafal seberapa yang boleh.

Sekumpulan untuk orang atau binatang:

an army of soldiers
a band of musicians
a bench of magistrates
a board of directors
a brood of chickens
a choir of singers
a class of pupils
a company of actors
a crew of sailors
a flock of sheep
a ganggle of geese
a gang of labourers
a gang of thieves
a hear of buffaloes, cattle
a little of cubs
a nest of rabbits
a pack of rascals, wolves
a plague of insects, locusts
a shool of whales
a staff of teachers
a swarm of bees
a swarm of insects
a team of horses
a team of players
a tribe of natives
a troop of monkeys
a troupe of dancers

Sekumpulan untuk benda²:

a bale of cotton
a batch of bread
a bouquet of flowers
a bunch of grapes
a clump of trees
a cluster of diamonds
a clucth of eggs
a collection of pictures
a crate of fruits
a fleet of ships
a flight of aeroplanes
a forest of tree
a hail of fire
a library of books
a pack of cards
a set of tools
a string of beads
a suit of clothes
a suite of furniture

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Posted · Report post

Bagus topic nih, tringin gak nak improve my language.

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[quote name='carnine9' timestamp='1323217207' post='1076337']
Bagus topic nih, tringin gak nak improve my language.
[/quote]

it's not language.. it's grammar.. you only can improve your communication level... hahhahahaa...[color=#ff8c00][i][sub] (jangan maraahhhh haaa..)[/sub][/i][/color]

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Hehe..Yeah that's true Sis, sorry my bad, i'm trying to learn pretty soon i will pass if i study hard ( chewahh :P) & also not mad at all. Hetam jer nih hehe, Edited by carnine9

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[quote name='carnine9' timestamp='1323241923' post='1076364']
Hehe..Yeah that's true Sis, sorry my bad, [color=#ff0000]I[/color]'m trying to learn pretty soon [color=#ff0000]I[/color] will pass if [color=#ff0000]I[/color] study hard ( chewahh :P) & also not mad at all. Hetam jer nih hehe,
[/quote]


Please use capital i for I... I think bro Mentary can explain why we need to use capital for that. Thanks. :108:

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Yup agreed sis. I must use capital actually. Sorry for that :)

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[quote name='carnine9' timestamp='1323242690' post='1076366']
Yup agreed sis. I must use capital actually. Sorry for that :)
[/quote]

It's ok.. we have to learn from our mistake....

[size=3][sub][i][color=#ee82ee]***aku pung bukan pandai sangat... lagak jer lebih...wakakakkakaka...[/color][/i][/sub][/size]

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Salam Bro M3ntary, I'm bit confused about past, present and future tenses. Do you have any simple explanation regarding on the subject above. Tq

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[quote name='cocos' timestamp='1323244635' post='1076371']
Salam Bro M3ntary, I'm bit confused about past, present and future tenses. Do you have any simple explanation regarding on the subject above. Tq
[/quote]

Wassalam. Apabila kita membuat ayat dalam Bahasa Inggeris, kita mestilah terlebih dahulu menghuraikan 'masa perbuatan' itu berlaku. Lazimnya sesuatu perbuatan boleh berlaku pada:

1. Masa sekarang, seperti: I eat rice every day. (Present Tense)
Saya makan nasi tiap² hari.

2. Masa yang lalu, seperti: I ate rice yesterday. (Past Tense)
Saya makan nasi semalam.

3. Masa akan datang, seperti: I shall eat rice tomorrow. (Future Tense)
Saya akan makan nasi esok.

Bagaimana pun masih ada lagi percahan dalam present, past & future tense.

1. Present/Past/Future Tense
2. Present/Past/Future Continuous Tense
3. Present/Past/Future Perfect Tense
4. Present/Past/Future Perfect Continuous Tense
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Yes please continue posting. I already subscribed to this topic. *Back to silent reader mode*

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[quote name='M3ntary' timestamp='1323262258' post='1076408']
Wassalam. Apabila kita membuat ayat dalam Bahasa Inggeris, kita mestilah terlebih dahulu menghuraikan 'masa perbuatan' itu berlaku. Lazimnya sesuatu perbuatan boleh berlaku pada:

1. Masa sekarang, seperti: I eat rice every day. (Present Tense)
Saya makan nasi tiap² hari.

2. Masa yang lalu, seperti: I ate rice yesterday. (Past Tense)
Saya makan nasi semalam.

3. Masa akan datang, seperti: I shall eat rice tomorrow. (Future Tense)
Saya akan makan nasi esok.

Bagaimana pun masih ada lagi percahan dalam present, past & future tense.

1. Present/Past/Future Tense
2. Present/Past/Future Continuous Tense
3. Present/Past/Future Perfect Tense
4. Present/Past/Future Perfect Continuous Tense
[/quote]

Oh its quite interesting.. Would you mind explaining on the other tenses too (continuous, perfect, perfect continuous). I really appreciate that. Thanks bro

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[quote name='akuccputsedut' timestamp='1323242393' post='1076365']
Please use capital i for I... I think bro Mentary can explain why we need to use capital for that. Thanks. :108:
[/quote]

The Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology (Wilson, 1988, ISBN 0-8242-0745-9)

Modern and Middle English I developed from earlier i in the stressed position. I came to be written with a capital letter thereby making it a distinct word and avoiding misreading handwritten manuscripts.

[quote name='cocos' timestamp='1323265630' post='1076414']
Oh its quite interesting.. Would you mind explaining on the other tenses too (continuous, perfect, perfect continuous). I really appreciate that. Thanks bro
[/quote]

Insya-Allah kita akan bincangkan nanti. Untuk sekarang ni terlebih dahulu kita akan bincangkan mengenai nouns, number of nouns, ganders, pronouns, the articles, the apostrophe & adjective terlebih dahulu. Selepas itu baru kita focus kan kepada tense.

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Thanks for the explanation bro mentary :)

[b]Basic Grammar - Pronouns [/b]

Pronoun.

[color=#ff0000]noun[/color] a word that can function as a noun phrase used by itself and that refers either to the participants in the discourse (e.g. I, you) or to someone or something mentioned elsewhere in the discourse (e.g. she, it, this).

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